According to the HDM-DCP conceptual model, the understanding and explanation of the Disability phenomenon are based on the interaction between three conceptual domains: personal factors, environmental factors and life habits.
A personal factor is a characteristic of a person such as age, sex, sociocultural identity, organic systems, capabilities, etc. The HDM-DCP proposes two measurement scales for personal factors: one for organic systems and the other for capabilities. In the HDM-DCP 2 (2010), a list of identity factors was added.
An organic system is group of bodily components all sharing a common function. Organic system quality is measured on a scale ranging from integrity to total impairment.
Capability is the potential of a person to accomplish mental and physical activities. Capability quality is measured on a scale ranging from optimal ability to total disability.
Identity factors are socio-demographic, economic and cultural characteristics of an individual and his / her life history. These also include information about the values and preferences of that same individual.
An environmental factor is defined as physical or social dimensions that determine a society’s organisation and context. Environmental factors quality is measured on a scale ranging from the optimal facilitator to total obstacle.
A facilitator refers to an environmental factor that contributes to the accomplishment of life habits when interacting with personal factors (impairments, disabilities and other characteristics of a person).
An obstacle refers to an environment factor that hinders the accomplishment of life habits interacting with personal factors (impairments, disabilities and other characteristics of a person).
According to the HDM-DCP, environmental factors are grouped into “social factors” and “physical factors”. Each grouping is composed of nine categories.
Political Economic Factors
• Political system and governmental structures
• Juridical system
• Economic system
• Socio-health system
• Education system
• Public infrastructures
• Community organisations
• Social Network
• Social rules
• Physical geography
• Electricity and magnetism
• National and regional development
A life habit is defined as a daily activity or social role valued by the person or his/her social-cultural context according to his/her characteristics (age, sex, socio-cultural identity, etc.). Life habits or performance in social life situations ensure a person’s survival and well-being in his/her society throughout his/her entire existence. Life habit accomplishment quality is measured on a scale ranging from full social participation to a total disabling situation.
A social participation situation refers to the total accomplishment of life habits, resulting from the interaction between personal factors (impairments, disabilities and other personal characteristics) and environmental factors (facilitators and obstacles).
A Disabling situation refers to the reduced accomplishment of life habits, resulting from the interaction between personal factors (impairments, disabilities and other personal characteristics) and environmental factors (facilitators and obstacles).
According to the HDM-DCP, life habits are grouped into two classes: “current activities” and “social roles”. Current activities and social roles are each composed of six life habits categories.
• Physical fitness and psychological well-being
• Personal care and health
• Interpersonal relationships
• Community and spriritual life
Above you have read a general definition of the three conceptual domains of the HDM-DCP. If you would like to have more information about the concepts, we invite you to consult the following document.